Quantitative methods of quality evaluation of initial training process in terms of the standard Aikido techniques
The problem of improved effectiveness and quantitative control of the education gains the increasing attention in our days due to the growing competition at the employment market. Some ways of solution for this problem will be discussed below in terms of the standard Aikido technique.The goal of Aikido, as well as of other athletic systems, supposes the achievement of the optimal adaptation condition.
Four stages of the training process may be distinguished:
I) development of characteristics contributing to the three-dimensional orientation;
II) learning of the formal (standard) sequence of movements in the techniques;
III) development of psycho-physiological, moral and endurance characteristics contributing to the achievement of the optimal adaptation;
IV) development of the ability to make the correct solutions in conditions of of the maximal uncertainty for a long time (ideally – continuously).
Study objective To create the quantitative method to assess the mastery level of three-dimensional orientation in Aikido.
The following prearrangements need to be observed:
- validity (sufficient and necessary number of the testing tasks to achieve the stable result, at least 80 elementary actions);
- informativeness (comparison of the results obtained at different stages of the training process);
- easy method and simple interpretation (with possible self-evaluation of the results by the students themselves, independent on their age);
- variability (the method should be applicable at further stages without conceptional modifications);
- traditional form of testing used in Japan - check-up of the mechanical knowledge of the suggested list of techniques.
The following questions need to be resolved within the above-mentioned objective:
• To select the necessary and sufficient number of exercises, sequence of the blocks and actions, duration of the test;
• To make a mechanical description of the sequence of elementary movements of both partners in accordance with the test requirements affixed to the frame of references;
• To develop the guideline on the assessment of the first stage of training;
• To develop the recommendations describing the correction of the deficiencies revealed.
The duration of the first training stage is about 3 to 5 years (360 to 720 hours), dependent on the age and physical performance of the students (considering the relatively normal health state), compliant with the duration of the preparative stage applied in the Russian Federation for the traditional sports.
By the end of the first training stage, the student must determine the changes of his/her three-dimensional posture accurately, based on the analysis of the locomotor reactions.
The determination of the posture in space requires three coordinates and three angles, although the first training stage just requires the "footprint" control, making possible the measuring of the feet position relative to the horizontal axes X and Y.
Beginning from the year 2011, the approbation of the quantitative testing of the standard Aikido techniques has been conducted at the Aikido club of the Sports and Health Facility of Perm State Humanitarian Pedagogical University (PSHPU).
Nineteen (19) persons (7 to 45 years old) with the training duration from 6 months to ten years were tested. Nine months later, five subjects underwent the second testing, five months after the last testing two subjects passed the third testing. The check-up was video-recorded. It contained three domains:
* Standard Aikido warmup (duration - 7-12 minutes, about 250-270 basic elements);
* Single basic elements: steps, movements, connecting moves, etiquette (duration 5-15 minutes, about 260-300 elementary movements);
* Paired standard Aikido techniques, according to the list of skills of the International Aikido Federation (Tokyo, Japan), in the context of the age and duration of training (duration 15-60 minutes, about 750-1500 elementary movements).
The total duration of the check-up varied from 30 to 90 minutes: the estimated evaluation parameter consisted in the footstep position relative to X-axis for the attack-neutralizing partner (nage). The description of the movement sequence for the attacking partner (uke) was not provided.
The test result was calculated in accordance to the following equation:
Cef = Ncm / Nem, where
Cef - effectiveness coefficient;
Nem - total number of elementary movements in the test;
Ncm - total number of correctly performed elementary movements.
Results of the primary analysis of video information
Exercises, techniques and time frame definitions
A. Each tested subject demonstrated good knowledge of the sequence of movements (Cef = 0.8 to 0.95).
B. Children younger than 14 years demonstrated the good knowledge of the single elementary movements (Cef = 0.5 to 0.8). In the adult subjects, Cef was 0.7 to 0.95 after 6-month training.
C. Cef of the paired techniques was 0.4 to 0.85.
According to V.P. Bespalko, the test is considered passed when the coefficient is >0.7.
The analysis of the warmup and single exercises, taking into account the similar performance level of these blocks by the tested students, resulted in the exclusion of these data from the calculation of the coefficient of effectiveness of the 1st stage test and prevalent attention to the paired elements execution.
D. The review of the paired elements lead to the selection of five standard techniques comprising 250 paired elementary movements. The standard technique consists of four elementary movements for the first sparring-partner and of 4-8 elementary movements for the second partner. The standard training connecting move includes four techniques (for the right hand and for the left hand, with forward and backward rotation), i.e. about 30-50 elementary movement by the pair. The techniques may be conventionally subdivided into difficult ones (according to the number of elementary moves) and complex ones (according to the variety of the movement coordination and positions).
E. The test duration under these conditions is 30 to 45 minutes.
Description of the movement sequence within the technique
The description of the movement sequence during the action affixed to the system of coordinates is based on the works of Aikido progenitor Morihei Ueshiba and scientific research in the fields of maths, physics, biomechanics, anatomy and sports. The whole life of Ueshiba Sansay proved the universal applicability of his system, therefore it can be described in the mathematical context.
Development of the test scoring system
The procedures and guideline for the testing include the range of formal assumptions to standardize the assessment of the training level of the student to provide:
1) testing at each level and stage of training;
2) the evaluation of this level using the unique total score;
3) the possibility of self-testing, resulting in better understanding of the current goals and their meaningful execution.
• The main principles of quantitative assessment of the standard Aikido techniques were developed.
• The comparison of qualitative and quantitative analysis of the blocks and specific single and paired standard Aikido techniques was executed.
• Immediate and long-term perspectives of standardization, unification and improvement of the testing system were outlined.
• Immediate and long-term perspectives of developing the guidelines aimed to correct the deficiencies revealed during the testing, were emphasized.
Translation: Gorbunova Veronika